WG Law and Development
Chair: David Restrepo Amariles
Discussant: Gregory Lewkowicz
Agata Cebera | Jagiellonian University in Cracow Poland
Jakub Firlus, MA | Jagiellonian University in Cracow Poland
Opportunities and risks associated with the argumentative model of interpretation of constitutional law in the era of post-academic science
The proposed presentation is aimed at presenting opportunities and risks associated with the use of the so-called argumentative law interpretation model in the field of constitutional law. The proposed analysis will be made taking into account the current stage of institutional science, i.e. the so-called ‘post-academic science’. Scholars will try to develop interrelations between such factors as: the ‘openness’ of the legal system, the activism of decisionmaking authorities, the affirmative nature of procedure and a given model of interpretation of law.
2. Definitions - differences and similarities
- syllogistic and argumentative model;
- stages of the development of science .
3. Post-academic science and the argumentative interpretation model – opportunities and risks
In the 21st century, constitutional systems have lost its national-oriented shape; yet they are becoming an open plane capable of adaptation of transnational factors. The reasons for this lie in the newly established network systems and polarization of social and macro-economic factors. The need for cohesion between national legal systems and the changes in the socio-economic environment has resulted in conceptualization of both: more flexible and expert-oriented forms of state activities, as well as the growing importance of the soft law. Aforementioned processes are also related to the replacement of the Weber’s doctrine of ‘expertise’ character of authorities with an integrated cooperation of many specialities (e.g. environment, I.T.) and the dialogue of the actors involved in the creation, modification and application of law. The need of maintaining market stability encouraged lawmakers to substitutive court-like processes with cooperative networks based on time-oriented factors, wide scope of participation and non-legal criteria derived from specific practical sciences.
The changes in the normative environment of law-applying authorities, its increasing openness to market factors and regionally-oriented values are affecting the model of the interpretation of provisions forming the basis for individual decisions. The new process of law application induces activism – not against the will of the lawmakers, but with its acceptance or even goodwill. In the above context, also the role of procedural law is subject to change. The instrumental nature of adjudication dedicated for the syllogistic model of interpretation ceases to meet practical needs.
Victor Cravo | Universidade de Brasília - UnB
Pontos de Partida para um Direito Administrativo do Século XXI
O pensamento jurídico contemporâneo, chamado neoformalista por Duncan Kennedy, não proporciona espaços em que o direito e a técnica (ou expertise) possam influenciar-se aberta e reciprocamente. Ao contrário, o neoformalismo jurídico tende a confundir a promessa de exatidão, proporcionada pela expertise, com a chancela de legitimidade, reclamada de toda política pública. Esse quadro se acentua no contexto de uma sociedade crescentemente mediada pela tecnologia, em que as decisões tomadas em função de critérios técnicos tendem a ser automatizadas, dispensando a participação direta de humanos - a exemplo de algoritmos que designam rotas de trânsito eficientes ou que classificam a capacidade de pagamento dos consumidores, o credit scoring. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo pretende divisar caminhos possíveis para a reimaginação do direito administrativo, de modo a que possa se tornar um regime institucional relevante para o aperfeiçoamento do caráter democrático das políticas públicas que dependam de construtos algorítmicos para sua formulação, implementação ou fiscalização - como pode ser o caso de políticas públicas que utilizem algoritmos para eleger os cidadãos eventualmente beneficiados. Enfrentar esse desafio é tarefa que exige uma revisão crítica das “ortodoxias” jurídicas que impregnam tanto o ensino do direito como sua aplicação pelas instituições estatais. Fundamentada em autores como Marcus Faro de Castro, Duncan Kennedy e Mangabeira Unger, a primeira seção aborda, em especial, a separação rígida que o neoformalismo jurídico pretendeu instituir entre direito e política, fazendo crescer o prestígio da técnica como instrumento de subordinação do primeiro frente à segunda. Ainda, a primeira seção também abordará a necessidade de se reconhecer e se incorporar a “indeterminação” - em contraposição à exatidão da técnica - como elemento inerente à análise jurídica. A segunda seção se dedica a esboçar possíveis direções a serem seguidas no âmbito do direito administrativo, no cenário de crescente dominação pela tecnologia, sendo duas as questões que suscitam maior atenção: (i) a disponibilidade e a funcionalidade dos espaços institucionais de contestação democrática no âmbito da administração pública; e (ii) a participação do direito administrativo na crítica da expertise, incluindo os construtos matemáticos, em especial aqueles incorporados às tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TICs), e à sua utilização como instrumento de reforma social.
Francesca Scamardella | Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Clinical Legal Education in the 21th Century. Why Do We Need a New Formation for Law students?
The European Network for Clinical Legal Education (ENCLE) defines clinical legal education (CLE) as “a legal teaching method based on experiential learning, which fosters the growth of knowledge, personal skills and values as well as promoting social justice at the same time. As a broad term, it encompasses varieties of formal, non-formal and informal educational programs and projects, which use practical-oriented, student-centered, problem-based, interactive learning methods”(http://encle.org/about-encle/definition-of-a-legal-clinic). The CLE can be defined as a model of ‘learning by doing’, where the theory was integrated by the practice. Students of Law Faculties have to learn how to deal with law not only from a theoretical and conceptual perspective (law as a set of given rules) but also as an instrument for social justice and as a process which involves different actors (legislator, judges, lawyers, NGOs, persons with their stories). While in US this paradigm is well developed, above all as a teaching method, in Europe it is still a novelty since there are many legal clinics in a very heterogeneous socio-legal panorama. There is also a second reason for this slow development in Europe: the CLE arises in a historical contingent moment characterized of social, cultural, political, legal and, economic transformations which are testing our way to produce, image and interpret law and legal education. The strong phenomenon of immigration that is assuming an international connotation is posing a question of fairness and social justice. Globalization and global governance have proposed a new vision of law no longer based on a command-and-control model (i.e. national sovereignty) but on a bottom-up approach characterised by an enlargement of the socio-decisional basis due to the interconnection of different systems. The CLE can be seen as an approach, a methodology to interpret all of these phenomena with the specific purpose to prepare and educate law students, orienting them in contemporary legal contexts. On this theoretical basis, the paper aims to identify the theoretical and epistemological roots of the CLE and reflect on its possible evolution, by focusing on recent developments in Naples, where a legal clinic is operating through the cooperation amongst the University of Naples Federico II (Department of Law), the Committee of Lawyers in Naples, NGOs working in the city and, students.
Mariane Beline Tavares | USP - Universidade de São Paulo
Feminist perspectives for (de) construction of art history
Within the context of the history of art it is possible to perceive a process of erasure of women artists to the same extent as the production of male art and understood as predominant and only possible of genius. The feminist perspective from the social and human sciences has made possible transformations that have awakened the study about how women give in art. The Guerrilla Girls activist group in 1989 spread through New York City asking the stark difference between female artists and the number of female nude exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum. We can understand about a recent history about the History of Art, which can be quite sexist since it was made by men and for men. We would like to analyze the work, from a perspective of women in the artistic trajectory, as indeed, in the models, as artists or as models. The objective is to study texts that seek this alternative vision, such as feminist authors Tamar Garb and Linda Nochlin, and work with analysis of works from the 19th century to the present day.